Leather, bonded leather and artificial leather.
Sheep leather, cow leather is the national requirements of sheepskin and leather official specification title!
A, leather is a cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, deer, or some other animals off of the original skin, after the tanneries tanning process, made from a variety of characteristics, strength, feel, color and markings leather materials, is the necessary information of modern leather products. Meanwhile, cowhide, sheepskin and pigskin leather is used three leather material. Leather is divided into head layer and layer leather.
(1) the first layer of skin is a grain of cattle, sheep, pig, etc., of the leather with natural scar and blood muscle scar, etc., and occasionally the cuts in the process of machining and low utilization rate of the belly of parts, import of head skin and trace the serial number of the cattle. All full grain can from the thickness and pore density difference is due to what kind of animal leather. Cowhide sort is more, such as cow leather, cattle leather, leather, cowhide, grazing oxen, not castrated bull leather and castrated bull leather. In China there are cow hide, buffalo hide, yak skin and zho skin, etc. Meanwhile, buffalo hide the pores of the thick and thin; Cow leather is a buffalo hide pore thin and thick. Skin pores are more fine and a little slope, there are mainly Sheep skins and goat two kinds big. Pigskin for hairy rule is 3 ~ 5 root a handful of scattered, so it is easy to difference, usually use pig skin of artificial breeding, and wild boar, famous South American wild boar, this kind of wild boar is of significant pig skin pores and grain characteristics of collagen fibers because of its special organization structure, can be processed into very soft leather garment leather or gloves, a high value. , ostrich leather, crocodile skin, short nose crocodile, lizard, snake skin, of bullfrog skin, seawater fish skin (there’s a shark skin, cod, SLATE cod croaker fishskin, eel skin skin, pearl skin, etc.), fresh water fish skin (such as grass carp, carp skin scaly skin), hairy, fox, silver fox skin, blue fox, etc.), the Wolf skin, dogskin, rabbit skin is easy to recognize, and cannot be made on the second floor.
Head skin is processed directly from the original skin of various animals, or the thicker cortex of animals such as cows, pigs, horses skin after hair removal cut into two layers, fibrous tissue tight upper others are processed into a variety of head skin.
(2) the second skin is relatively loose layer fiber organization, some chemical materials spraying or covering, PVC, PUfilm.
Because of this, the differences between the first layer of skin and second skin a useful way to skin the longitudinal section of fiber density was investigated. By head skin is thick and thin fiber layer and its closely together slightly loose excessive layer together, with outstanding strength, elasticity and plasticity and other characteristics. 2 are as long as the loose skin layer of fibrous tissue, as long as after spraying chemical material or polishing ability used to make leather products, it keeps its natural elasticity and plasticity technology must feature, but strength is poorer, the head skin with the same thickness of demand.
And for now in manufacturing all kinds of leather, leather processing technology some different, but the difference method is the same.
Next we introduced all kinds of leather processing oriented leather:
1, the water dyed leather:
Refers to the use of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, deer head skin bleaching and all sorts of color, such as the drum broke loose, and polishing and processing all kinds of soft skin.
2, pearl skin:
, also known as film leather, along the spine in half, and repair to the belly of loosely knit and some of the limbs open side of the first layer of leather or second leather, laminating various net in its appearance color, metal color, jade-like stone light pearl color, colorful two-color or polychromatic PVC film.
Second crust spraying various chemical material calender or extinction after processing of leather.
Is low head skin billet, appearance for polishing treatment, grinding to the appearance of scars and blood muscle scar, with a variety of popular color skin after plasma spraying, pressed into the skin of the grain or smooth effect.
5, embossed leather:
Usually choose face or edge bead skin to suppress various stripes or picture. For example, copy crocodiles, lizards, ostrich skin lines, snake skin, water ripple, the bark of beautiful grain, litchi, imitation deer lines, etc., along with a variety of stripes and plaids, three-dimensional picture or reflect a variety of brand image design drawings, etc.
6, printed or pyrograph skin:
Material with embossed leather is the same, just different processing technology, is printing or hot flipping into various stripes or picture first or second skin.
Will be polished leather surface disposal and grain scar or coarse fiber abrasion, show neat all embellish leather fibre after dyed a variety of popular colors and become the first or second leather.
8, velvet skin:
Also called Jing skin, is the crust appearance burnish cloth with soft nap, then dyed out all kinds of popular color and skin.
9, laser skin:
Also called laser skin, cite laser technology in leather surface etching stripes pictures of the latest varieties of leather.
Bonded leather: the various animal fee leather and leather scraps from damage, distribution of chemical material processing. The appearance processing technology is the same as leather face, embossed leather is the same, its characteristic is the skin edges is neat, utilization rate is high, the price is appropriate; But the skin is usually thicker, strength is poorer, briefcase, rod bags, only suitable for manufacturing parity clubs set of goods and affordable belts, finalize the design technologies such as the longitudinal section fibrous tissue uniform, distinguishable recognize liquid hybrid fiber coagulation effect.
Three, artificial leather, also called imitation leather or rubber, PVC and PU is the floorboard of the artificial data, and microfiber is the highest quality artificial leather. It is on the textile duct or non-woven base, by all sorts of different formulations of PVC and PU foam or laminating processing manufacturing and become, can according to the different strength, wear-resisting, cold resistant degrees and a color and luster, pattern drawing and other requirements processing, has a wide variety of design and color, good waterproof function, keep out appearance neat, high utilization ratio and offer relatively cheap real leather characteristics, but the vast some artificial leather, its handle and elastic is unable to be real leather effect; Its longitudinal section, you can see the fine bubble hole, cloth base or the surface of thin film and dry dry artificial fiber. It is early to always to now is very popular a kind of data, be in used to produce all kinds of leather products, or some leather material. It is increasingly leading manufacturing technology, are are widely used in second floor leather processing and manufacturing.
Especially pay attention to:
Today, very characteristics of genuine leather artificial leather in a growing, its looks technology extreme the fibrous tissue, can reach the role of the leather, its offer and domestic head skin.
The head of the buffalo hide layers of leather, floor leather, bonded leather how difference?
Head skin is exterior layer of the dermis, the first layer of skin is relatively thin some offer high, make furniture comfortable and soft. Usually the first layer is more than 10 yuan a square foot every one. Below the layer of the skin is on the second floor leather. Second floor leather cheaper, more hard, see on the market is very much also, usually on the second floor leather 4-6 yuan a square foot.
Head skin and second floor leather, leather longitudinal section of the fiber density was investigated. By head skin is thick and thin fiber layer and its closely together slightly loose excessive layer together; 2 are as long as the loose skin layer of fibrous tissue, spraying chemical material or polishing processing.
Will relax after half leather, wrinkles immediately unseen is cowhide, wrinkles unseen is not bonded leather
Leather to identify common sense
1: to identify the real leather
Use hand touch leather appearance, such as smooth, soft, full and elastic feelings is real leather; And usually artificial synthetic leather surface hair dry, dull, softness.
Real leather surface has the clear hair also, markings, cow leather has the symmetry of the pores, yak skin has the thick and thin pores, the pores of goat skin has been designed.
Any genuine leather has the smell of leather; The artificial leather has excitant strong plastic smell.
From real leather and artificial leather the reverse side tore off a little fiber, after burning, who announced the blunt nose smell, forming a knot in one’s artificial leather; Announced any hair smell, does not produce hard bumps is genuine leather.
2, identify artificial leather and synthetic leather
With the above four fundamental recognition method, in order to distinguish artificial leather, synthetic leather, mutatis mutandis, understand and clear. Other, artificial leather and synthetic leather has the following features:
1, press with finger leather surface, there is no significant pores, wrinkles, such as pressure after the wrinkles, nor significant natural.
2, no pores, leather, this is one of the important characteristics distinguish true and false leather.
3, cut corners burning, relish, but not a hair of coke smell.
3, how difference leather cattle, pig leather, horsehide and sheep leather
The type of leather is not the same, its features and USES are different. The cow leather is fine, for example, high strength, the most suitable for manufacturing leather shoes, leather goods; Sheep leather light, thin and soft, it is the ambition of leather garment fabric; Pig leather breathable moisture permeability function is better.
Leather looks round and bulky pore, a skewed into leather. Pore is put to a set of three root, leather surface rendering pictures of many small triangle,
Cow leather and buffalo leather are called leather cattle, but both also have certainly different. Cattle leather appearance of pores and rounded, straight into leather, strict and uniform pore, put irregular, like the stars. Buffalo leather appearance than cattle leather bulky pore, pore number relatively sparse cattle leather, leathery is loose, as detailed full cow leather.
MAO also oval leather appearance, slightly bigger than a cow leather pores, put more rules.
Leather grain of the oval pore, pore is clear, a few root constitute a group, is designed.
Cow skin layers can be cut (at most) can be divided into 8 layer the head the outermost layer of skin, the best quality, second to second floor skin, its strength, elasticity and permeability are not as good as the first layer leather. Car seat is necessary to choose the head skin. Now on the market to sell a composite skin is skin appearance with a layer of film on the second floor, exquisite appearance, looks like the skin, some businessmen to pretend to head skin, fraud users, should pay attention to identify.